The challenge is to find inexpensive and efficient routes to create hydrogen in sufficient quantities from non-fossil natural resources.
The efficiency of this integrated photochemical process can be much higher, in principle, than the two sequential processes; it has now reached 8-12% in the laboratory4 and has prospects for much greater gains as researchers learn to better control the nanoscale excitation and photochemistry. The technical challenge is finding robust semiconductor materials that satisfy the competing requirements of nature.
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