Actions, too, might create moral duties. Even relationships can create moral duties. If Seth Wyman's words did not create such a moral duty, Seth may still have been morally responsible by virtue of his relationship to his son. Quite simply, it is impractical to enforce all moral duties; there are too many of them.
Conversely, there are some nonmoral duties that should be enforced because enforcement is efficient—that is, because the benefits of enforcement outweigh the costs. It is hard to imagine a moral system that demands that people drive on the right side of the road, or that acceptance be effective on dispatch, but legal systems routinely enforce such obligations. As H.L.A. Hart said, "[t]he rules of international law, like those of municipal law, are often morally quite indifferent." This is not to say that rules of law are always or usually morally indifferent. There must be some overlap between law and morality, even if that overlap is more complete in some areas than others. But some statements and actions should give rise to legal liability even if they do not involve moral obligations. Some division between law and morality is inevitable.
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