MetaFilter posts tagged with Logic
http://www.metafilter.com/tags/Logic
Posts tagged with 'Logic' at MetaFilter.Sun, 11 Sep 2016 00:21:14 -0800Sun, 11 Sep 2016 00:21:14 -0800en-ushttp://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss60Animated math
http://www.metafilter.com/162201/Animated%2Dmath
<a href="https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLZHQObOWTQDPD3MizzM2xVFitgF8hE_ab">Essence of linear algebra</a> - "[<a href="https://twitter.com/3blue1brown">Grant Sanderson</a> of <a href="http://www.3blue1brown.com">3Blue1Brown</a> (<a href="https://www.khanacademy.org/math/linear-algebra/eola-topic">now at Khan Academy</a>) <a href="https://twitter.com/3Blue1Brown/status/772904942365347840">animates</a>] the geometric intuitions underlying linear algebra, making the many matrix and vector operations feel less arbitrary." <ol><li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fNk_zzaMoSs">Vectors, what even are they?</a> - "I imagine many viewers are already familiar with vectors in some context, so this video is intended both as a quick review of vector terminology, as well as a chance to make sure we're all on the same page about how specifically to think about vectors in the context of linear algebra." (9:48)</li>
<li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k7RM-ot2NWY">Linear combinations, span, and basis vectors</a> - "The fundamental vector concepts of span, linear combinations, linear dependence and bases all center on one surprisingly important operation: Scaling several vectors and adding them together." (9:55)</li>
<li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kYB8IZa5AuE">Linear transformations and matrices</a> - "Matrices can be thought of as transforming space, and understanding how this work is crucial for understanding many other ideas that follow in linear algebra." (10:54)</li>
<li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XkY2DOUCWMU">Matrix multiplication as composition</a> - "Multiplying two matrices represents applying one transformation after another. Many facts about matrix multiplication become much clearer once you digest this fact." (9:59)
<br> fn. <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHLEWRxRGiM">Three-dimensional linear transformations</a> - "What do 3d linear transformations look like? Having talked about the relationship between matrices and transformations in the last two videos, this one extends those same concepts to three dimensions." (4:42)</li>
<li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ip3X9LOh2dk">The determinant</a> - "The determinant of a linear transformation measures how much areas/volumes change during the transformation." (9:59)</li>
<li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQhTuRlWMxw">Inverse matrices, column space and null space</a> - "How to think about linear systems of equations geometrically. The focus here is on gaining an intuition for the concepts of inverse matrices, column space, rank and null space, but the computation of those constructs is not discussed." (12:04)
<br> fn. <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8VSDg_WQlA">Nonsquare matrices as transformations between dimensions</a> - "Because people asked, this is a video briefly showing the geometric interpretation of non-square matrices as linear transformations that go between dimensions." (4:22)</li>
<li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LyGKycYT2v0">Dot products and duality</a> - "Dot products are a nice geometric tool for understanding projection. But now that we know about linear transformations, we can get a deeper feel for what's going on with the dot product, and the connection between its numerical computation and its geometric interpretation." (14:07)</li>
<li><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaM7OCEm3G0">Cross products</a> - "Dot products are a nice geometric tool for understanding projection. But now that we know about linear transformations, we can get a deeper feel for what's going on with the dot product, and the connection between its numerical computation and its geometric interpretation." (8:54)
<br> part 2. <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eu6i7WJeinw">Cross products in the light of linear transformations</a> - "This covers the main geometric intuition behind the 2d and 3d cross products." (13:11)</li></ol>
also btw...
<a href="http://setosa.io/ev/eigenvectors-and-eigenvalues/">Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues explained visually</a> - "Eigenvalues/vectors are instrumental to understanding electrical circuits, mechanical systems, ecology and even Google's <a href="http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~bryan/googleFinalVersionFixed.pdf">Page</a><a href="http://www.metafilter.com/140141/Eigendemocracy-crowd-sourced-deliberative-democracy">Rank</a> algorithm. Let's see if visualization can make these ideas more intuitive." (<a href="http://www.epicenecyb.org/archives/date/2016/09#post-22704">via</a>) tag:metafilter.com,2016:site.162201Sun, 11 Sep 2016 00:21:14 -0800kliulessTromp is going to make Proof-of-Work systems great again
http://www.metafilter.com/161447/Tromp%2Dis%2Dgoing%2Dto%2Dmake%2DProof%2Dof%2DWork%2Dsystems%2Dgreat%2Dagain
John Tromp is a computer scientist whose interests include <a href="http://tromp.github.io/orimaze.html">mazes</a> (playable: <a href="http://tromp.github.io/oriscript4.html">1</a>, <a href="http://tromp.github.io/oriscript5.html">2</a>), <a href="http://tromp.github.io/chess/chess.html">chess problems</a>, <a href="http://tromp.github.io/go.html">Go</a> <small>(<a href="https://www.metafilter.com/148202/On-your-mark-get-set-GO">previously</a>)</small>, <a href="http://tromp.github.io/cl/diagrams.html">graphical representations</a> of <a href="http://tromp.github.io/cl/cl.html">combinatory logic</a>, <a href="http://tromp.github.io/c4/c4.html">Connect-4</a>, <a href="http://tromp.github.io/pearls.html">code obfuscation</a>, <a href="http://tromp.github.io/darts.html">darts</a>, <a href="http://tromp.github.io/cds.html">pop music</a>, and <a href="http://tromp.github.io/">much, much more</a>. tag:metafilter.com,2016:site.161447Fri, 05 Aug 2016 13:47:44 -0800OverlappingElvisXerox Alto: Restoring the Legendary 1970s GUI Computer
http://www.metafilter.com/161331/Xerox%2DAlto%2DRestoring%2Dthe%2DLegendary%2D1970s%2DGUI%2DComputer
Startup incubator Y-Combinator acquired a Xerox Alto and <a href="http://www.righto.com/">Ken Shirriff</a> is currently in the process of restoring it to working condition.
<br><br>
<a href="http://www.righto.com/2016/06/y-combinators-xerox-alto-restoring.html">Overview of the Alto and Its Place in History</a>
<br>
<a href="http://www.righto.com/2016/06/restoring-y-combinators-xerox-alto-day.html">Day 1: Power Supplies and Disk Interface</a>
<br>
<a href="http://www.righto.com/2016/07/restoring-y-combinators-xerox-alto-day.html">Day 2: Repairing the Display</a>
<br>
<a href="http://www.righto.com/2016/07/restoring-y-combinators-xerox-alto-day_11.html">Day 3: Inside the Disk Drive</a>
<br>
<a href="http://www.righto.com/2016/07/restoring-y-combinators-xerox-alto-day_31.html">Day 4: Microcode Tasks and Trying To Boot</a>
<br>
<a href="http://www.righto.com/2016/06/hello-world-in-bcpl-language-on-xerox.html">"Hello World" in the BCPL Language (Precursor to C) on the Alto Simulator</a> He is being assisted by the<a href="http://ibm-1401.info/"> IBM 1401 Restoration Team.</a>
The <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerox_Alto">Alto</a> was the first computer designed around a graphical user interface and introduced Ethernet and the laser printer to the world. The Alto also was one of the first object-oriented systems, supporting the Mesa and Smalltalk languages. tag:metafilter.com,2016:site.161331Sun, 31 Jul 2016 13:00:09 -0800Pong74LSSo, the unknowable kicks in
http://www.metafilter.com/161308/So%2Dthe%2Dunknowable%2Dkicks%2Din
<a href="https://plus.google.com/117663015413546257905/posts/VdJyWda2hrj">Logic hacking</a> - "Writing shorter and shorter computer programs for which it's unknowable whether these programs run forever, or stop... the winner of the <a href="https://johncarlosbaez.wordpress.com/2016/05/21/the-busy-beaver-game/">Busy Beaver Game</a> for N-state Turing machines becomes unknowable using ordinary math - somewhere between N = 5 and N = 1919." <a href="https://plus.google.com/117663015413546257905/posts/8eYTjrpiGte">Interview with a Mathematical Physicist</a>: <a href="https://plus.google.com/117663015413546257905/posts/JFF1nW6uxcD">John Baez</a>
<ul><li><a href="https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/interview-mathematical-physicist-john-baez-part-1/">Part 1</a> - "Here's the first part of an interview. I used it as an excuse to say what I've been doing all these years. I also talk about my uncle Albert Baez, who got me interested in physics in the first place - and <a href="https://johncarlosbaez.wordpress.com/2016/06/11/azimuth-news-part-5/">what I'm working on</a> right now. I hope it's interesting even if you care more about math and physics. There's a lot here about quantum gravity, category theory and some of my hobbies, like the octonions."</li>
<li><a href="https://www.physicsforums.com/insights/interview-mathematical-physicist-john-baez-part-2/">From crackpots to climate change</a> - "Here's part two of my interview on Physics Forums. I talk about the early days of the internet, before the world-web caught on. First we started discussing physics on 'usenet newsgroups' like sci.physics - but then a flood of crackpots invaded... That's what led me to create the Crackpot Index. But spending lots of time on newsgroups was still worthwhile, and it led me to start writing '<a href="http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/TWF.html">This Week's Finds</a>', which has been called the world's first blog, in 1993. I also talk about my physics and math heroes, what discoveries I'm most looking forward to, and why I switched to thinking about environmental problems. It was a great chance to ponder lots of things, including the far future of the Universe."</li></ul>
also btw...
-<a href="https://plus.google.com/117663015413546257905/posts/gvzrNKQqqnV">1+1 = 0</a>
-<a href="https://plus.google.com/117663015413546257905/posts/4fMBVQUhrDm">Computing the uncomputable</a>
-<a href="https://plus.google.com/117663015413546257905/posts/6jw8M2dxV9g">The inaccessible infinite</a>
-<a href="https://plus.google.com/117663015413546257905/posts/ZSb9MWjdKss">The longest G+ post I'll ever write</a>
-<a href="https://plus.google.com/117663015413546257905/posts/8E9ztrNUir7">The world's most long-winded proof</a>
-<a href="https://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/~chaitin/summer.html">Paradoxes of randomness</a>
-<a href="http://lemire.me/blog/2016/05/23/the-surprising-cleverness-of-modern-compilers/">The surprising cleverness of modern compilers</a> tag:metafilter.com,2016:site.161308Sat, 30 Jul 2016 11:42:28 -0800kliulessBoolosian logic
http://www.metafilter.com/154548/Boolosian%2Dlogic
<a href="http://m.nautil.us/issue/30/identity/how-to-solve-the-hardest-logic-puzzle-ever">The Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever goes like this:</a> <blockquote>
Three gods A, B, and C are called, in some order, True, False, and Random. True always speaks truly, False always speaks falsely, but whether Random speaks truly or falsely is a completely random matter. Your task is to determine the identities of A, B, and C by asking three yes-no questions; each question must be put to exactly one god. The gods understand English, but will answer all questions in their own language, in which the words for "yes" and "no" are "da" and "ja," in some order. You do not know which word means which.
</blockquote> tag:metafilter.com,2015:site.154548Sun, 08 Nov 2015 21:53:36 -0800the man of twists and turnsI'm the treasure in the box
http://www.metafilter.com/152668/Im%2Dthe%2Dtreasure%2Din%2Dthe%2Dbox
<a href="http://blog.plover.com/math/logic/annoying-boxes.html">The annoying boxes puzzle:</a> <em>There are two boxes on a table, one red and one green. One contains a treasure. The red box is labelled "exactly one of the labels is true". The green box is labelled "the treasure is in this box."
Can you figure out which box contains the treasure?</em> <br><a href="http://blog.plover.com/math/logic/annoying-boxes-solution.html" title="but click the main link to the statement of the problem first">Solution.</a> tag:metafilter.com,2015:site.152668Wed, 02 Sep 2015 17:29:13 -0800WolfdogCan you solve this puzzle?
http://www.metafilter.com/150659/Can%2Dyou%2Dsolve%2Dthis%2Dpuzzle
Downstairs in a house are three identical on-off switches. One of them controls the lamp in the attic. The puzzle is to work out which switch controls the lamp.
The rules are as follows. You are allowed to manipulate the switches all you like, and then you are allowed a single trip to the attic. <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/jun/22/can-you-solve-it-are-you-smarter-than-jo-nesbo-monday-puzzle">How do you do it?</a> tag:metafilter.com,2015:site.150659Mon, 22 Jun 2015 18:47:51 -0800growabrainHoTT Coq
http://www.metafilter.com/150345/HoTT%2DCoq
<a href="https://www.quantamagazine.org/20150519-will-computers-redefine-the-roots-of-math/">Univalent Foundations Redefines Mathematics</a> - "When a legendary mathematician found a mistake in his own work, he embarked on a computer-aided quest to eliminate human error. To succeed, he has to <a href="http://homotopytypetheory.org/book/">rewrite the century-old rules</a> underlying all of mathematics." (<a href="http://www.metafilter.com/126041/Computerized-Math-Formal-Proofs-andamp-Alternative-Logic">previously</a>) <a href="http://www.ams.org/notices/201309/rnoti-p1164.pdf">Voevodsky's Univalence Axiom in Homotopy Type Theory</a>
<blockquote>One of Voevodsky's goals (<a href="https://intelligence.org/2014/02/21/john-baez-on-research-tactics/">as we understand it</a>) is that, in a not too distant future, mathematicians will be able to verify the correctness of their own papers by working <a href="http://math.andrej.com/2014/01/13/univalent-foundations-subsume-classical-mathematics/">within the system of univalent foundations</a> formalized in a proof assistant and that doing so will become natural even for pure mathematicians (the same way that most mathematicians now typeset their own papers in TeX). We believe that this aspect of the <a href="http://ncatlab.org/nlab/show/univalence+axiom">univalent foundations program</a> distinguishes it from other approaches to foundations by providing a practical utility for the working mathematician.</blockquote>
-<a href="http://www.science4all.org/le-nguyen-hoang/type-theory/">Type Theory: A Modern Computable Paradigm for Math</a>
-<a href="http://www.science4all.org/le-nguyen-hoang/homotopy-type-theory/">Homotopy Type Theory and Higher Inductive Types</a>
-<a href="http://www.science4all.org/le-nguyen-hoang/univalence/">Univalent Foundations of Mathematics</a>
also btw...
-<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QNznD9hMEh0">James Simons interview</a>
-<a href="https://mathematicswithoutapologies.wordpress.com/2015/05/13/univalent-foundations-no-comment/">Univalent Foundations: "No Comment."</a> (<a href="http://math-frolic.blogspot.com/2015/05/set-theory-type-theory-hott-univalent.html">via</a>)
-<a href="https://terrytao.wordpress.com/career-advice/there%E2%80%99s-more-to-mathematics-than-rigour-and-proofs/">There's more to mathematics than rigour and proofs</a> tag:metafilter.com,2015:site.150345Tue, 09 Jun 2015 22:40:35 -0800kliuless3Blue1Brown: Reminding the world that math makes sense
http://www.metafilter.com/150242/3Blue1Brown%2DReminding%2Dthe%2Dworld%2Dthat%2Dmath%2Dmakes%2Dsense
<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_0yfvm0UoU">Understanding e to the pi i</a> - "<a href="http://www.3blue1brown.com/s/HowToThinkAboutExponentials.pdf">An intuitive explanation</a> as to why <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04hz49f" title="Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss Euler's number, also known as e. First discovered in the seventeenth century by the Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli when he was studying compound interest, e is now recognised as one of the most important and interesting numbers in mathematics. Roughly equal to 2.718, e is useful in studying many everyday situations, from personal savings to epidemics. It also features in Euler's Identity, sometimes described as the most beautiful equation ever written. With: Colva Roney-Dougal, Reader in Pure Mathematics at the University of St Andrews; June Barrow-Green, Senior Lecturer in the History of Maths at the Open University; and Vicky Neale, Whitehead Lecturer at the Mathematical Institute and Balliol College at the University of Oxford.">e</a> to the <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p004y291" title="Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the history of the most detailed number in nature. In the Bible's description of Solomon's temple it comes out as three, Archimedes calculated it to the equivalent of 14 decimal places and today's super computers have defined it with an extraordinary degree of accuracy to its first 1.4 trillion digits. It is the longest number in nature and we only need its first 32 figures to calculate the size of the known universe within the accuracy of one proton. We are talking about Pi, 3.14159 etc, the number which describes the ratio of a circle's diameter to its circumference. How has something so commonplace in nature been such a challenge for maths? And what does the oddly ubiquitous nature of Pi tell us about the hidden complexities of our world? With: Robert Kaplan, co-founder of the Maths Circle at Harvard University; Eleanor Robson, Lecturer in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at Cambridge University; and Ian Stewart, Professor of Mathematics at the University of Warwick.">pi</a> <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00tt6b2" title="Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss imaginary numbers. In the sixteenth century, a group of mathematicians in Bologna found a solution to a problem that had puzzled generations before them: a completely new kind of number. For more than a century this discovery was greeted with such scepticism that the great French thinker Rene Descartes dismissed it as an 'imaginary' number. The name stuck - but so did the numbers. Long dismissed as useless or even fictitious, the imaginary number i and its properties were first explored seriously in the eighteenth century. Today the imaginary numbers are in daily use by engineers, and are vital to our understanding of phenomena including electricity and radio waves. With: Marcus du Sautoy, Professor of Mathematics at Oxford University; Ian Stewart, Emeritus Professor of Mathematics at the University of Warwick; and Caroline Series, Professor of Mathematics at the University of Warwick.">i</a> equals -1 <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1rVHLZm5Aho">without a hint</a> of calculus. This is <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zLzLxVeqdQg">not your usual</a> Taylor series nonsense." (<a href="https://twitter.com/stevenstrogatz/status/604653212214292481" title="''A star is born.''">via</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/Noahpinion/status/604679198259580928" title="''Best geek video I've seen all week.''">via</a>; <a href="http://www.reddit.com/r/math/comments/2xzzk0/nontaylorseries_explanation_for_eulers_formula/">reddit</a>; <a href="http://www.metafilter.com/89918/Math-is-beautiful">previously</a>) <a href="https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYO_jab_esuFRV4b17AJtAw">More videos from 3Blue1Brown</a>: "<a href="http://www.3blue1brown.com/">3Blue1Brown</a> is some combination of math and entertainment, depending on your disposition. The goal is for explanations to be <a href="http://www.3blue1brown.com/about/" title="''When the tool I am building for animations becomes something besides a jumble of Python and Duct tape, I'll make it publicly available so that anyone can use it to easily illustrate their own explanations.''">driven by animations</a>, for difficult problems to be made simple with changes in perspective, and for philosophizing to be limited to the brevity and semantic constraints of silly poetry. Basically, math sits in <a href="https://plus.google.com/117663015413546257905/posts/QAhMH35LThk">an ivory tower it built itself out of</a> jargon and impossibly long sequences of (seemingly) logical steps, and I would like to take it out for a walk to <a href="http://wordplay.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/03/09/%CF%80/">meet everyone</a>." tag:metafilter.com,2015:site.150242Sat, 06 Jun 2015 11:42:18 -0800kliulessWhat I post, I post.
http://www.metafilter.com/150037/What%2DI%2Dpost%2DI%2Dpost
The game is the game, what's done is done, and it is what it is.
<blockquote> <a href="http://youtu.be/qoyq88niVEU"><em>The Wire</em>: Tautology Supercut</a> [SLYT, NSFW]</blockquote> tag:metafilter.com,2015:site.150037Fri, 29 May 2015 12:42:31 -0800Room 641-AThe Simple Logical Puzzle That Shows How Illogical People Are
http://www.metafilter.com/149854/The%2DSimple%2DLogical%2DPuzzle%2DThat%2DShows%2DHow%2DIllogical%2DPeople%2DAre
<a href="http://nautil.us/blog/the-simple-logical-puzzle-that-shows-how-illogical-people-are">In the 1960s, the English psychologist Peter Wason devised an experiment that would revolutionize his field.</a> tag:metafilter.com,2015:site.149854Fri, 22 May 2015 10:27:51 -0800boo_radleyThe roads ahead are long and winding...
http://www.metafilter.com/149311/The%2Droads%2Dahead%2Dare%2Dlong%2Dand%2Dwinding
<a href="http://www.theincrediblecompany.com/try-alcazar" title="In-browser, playable version">Alcazar is a neat little path-finding logic game.</a> There are also <a href="http://www.theincrediblecompany.com/alcazar-1/" title="pencil and paper is best">printable puzzles, strategy tips and metapuzzles</a> to be had. The author has a two-part post (<a href="http://edderiofer.blogspot.com/2014/11/on-subject-of-parity-when-we-refer-to.html">Part 1</a>,<a href="http://edderiofer.blogspot.com/2014/11/parity-in-alcazar-and-other-such-loop.html"> Part 2</a>) on the use of parity in the puzzle, and another author writes briefly about <a href="http://ravensoft.tumblr.com/post/105861925602/alcazar-is-an-amazing-puzzle-game-that-can-teach">programming and problem-solving skills.</a> tag:metafilter.com,2015:site.149311Sat, 02 May 2015 05:07:38 -0800Wolfdog0h n0, another time waster
http://www.metafilter.com/147760/0h%2Dn0%2Danother%2Dtime%2Dwaster
<a href="http://0hn0.com/">0h n0</a> is a game of logical deduction where each dot in a grid can only exist in the same row or column as a certain number of like-colored dots. The game will give you specific pieces of information about how many like-colored dots a single dot can "see", and you must deduce the remaining grid of dots. It's from the same people who brought us the zen-like logic game <a href="http://0hh1.com/">0h h1</a> (<a href="http://www.metafilter.com/144487/Hello-there">previously</a>). Tap a dot to change it to blue, tap again to change to red, tap again to change to unassigned. Clicking on a dot with a number with show you which dots the puzzle started with, and are unchangeable. The eye button will provide a hint if you are stuck. The X button will close out of the current puzzle and bring you back to the main menu.
A few UI improvements over 0hh1: there's now an undo button that also states what change was undone, and there's a timer mode where you can challenge yourself based on time to complete, . tag:metafilter.com,2015:site.147760Mon, 09 Mar 2015 12:43:22 -0800codacorollaMusic Workshop - FEZ
http://www.metafilter.com/147085/Music%2DWorkshop%2DFEZ
Are you interested in making ambient, drifting, densely-layered electronic music? But don't know where to even start? This is the most thoughtful and gentle introduction I'm aware of, from a fine musician. It's a 45-minute <a href="http://youtu.be/PH04VJ8jxvo">video workshop</a> from Rich Vreeland aka <a href="http://disasterpeace.com/">Disasterpeace</a>, composer of the gorgeous, acclaimed <i><a href="http://music.disasterpeace.com/album/fez-ost">Fez</a></i> soundtrack</a>. Rich composes a <i>Fez</i>-like track on the fly, explaining what he's doing in the process. While he uses <a href="https://www.apple.com/logic-pro/">Logic</a> and the softsynth <a href="http://www.native-instruments.com/en/products/komplete/synths/massive/">Massive</a> in this workshop, his general approach and attention to sound design and synthesis will be applicable to whatever software or hardware you choose to use. <small>(Hat tip to <a href="http://www.metafilter.com/user/35458">sparkletone</a> for the link. <a href="http://www.metafilter.com/tags/fez"><i>Fez</i> previously on Metafilter</a>.)</small> tag:metafilter.com,2015:site.147085Mon, 16 Feb 2015 12:28:00 -0800najuThe Man Who Tried to Redeem the World with Logic
http://www.metafilter.com/146921/The%2DMan%2DWho%2DTried%2Dto%2DRedeem%2Dthe%2DWorld%2Dwith%2DLogic
<a href="http://nautil.us/issue/21/information/the-man-who-tried-to-redeem-the-world-with-logic">Walter Pitts rose from the streets to MIT, but couldn't escape himself.</a> Pitts was used to being bullied. He'd been born into a tough family in Prohibition-era Detroit, where his father, a boiler-maker, had no trouble raising his fists to get his way. The neighborhood boys weren't much better. One afternoon in 1935, they chased him through the streets until he ducked into the local library to hide. The library was familiar ground, where he had taught himself Greek, Latin, logic, and mathematics—better than home, where his father insisted he drop out of school and go to work. Outside, the world was messy. Inside, it all made sense. Not wanting to risk another run-in that night, Pitts stayed hidden until the library closed for the evening. Alone, he wandered through the stacks of books until he came across Principia Mathematica, a three-volume tome written by Bertrand Russell and Alfred Whitehead between 1910 and 1913, which attempted to reduce all of mathematics to pure logic. Pitts sat down and began to read. For three days he remained in the library until he had read each volume cover to cover—nearly 2,000 pages in all—and had identified several mistakes. Deciding that Bertrand Russell himself needed to know about these, the boy drafted a letter to Russell detailing the errors. Not only did Russell write back, he was so impressed that he invited Pitts to study with him as a graduate student at Cambridge University in England. Pitts couldn't oblige him, though—he was only 12 years old. But three years later, when he heard that Russell would be visiting the University of Chicago, the 15-year-old ran away from home and headed for Illinois. He never saw his family again. tag:metafilter.com,2015:site.146921Tue, 10 Feb 2015 18:13:50 -0800standardasparagusStill Combining Numbers On A Grid To Get Bigger Numbers, But Different
http://www.metafilter.com/145164/Still%2DCombining%2DNumbers%2DOn%2DA%2DGrid%2DTo%2DGet%2DBigger%2DNumbers%2DBut%2DDifferent
<a href="http://www.veewo.com/games/get10/">Get 10</a> is a new browser game from veewo, creators of <em>1024</em>. tag:metafilter.com,2014:site.145164Tue, 09 Dec 2014 00:12:41 -0800Rinku[x][x][x][_][x][x]
http://www.metafilter.com/145026/xxxxx
<a href="http://www.logic-puzzles.org/init.php">Instant logic puzzles of customizable difficulty.</a> Once you've warmed up, try your hand at the great-granddaddy of the genre: the infamous <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zebra_Puzzle">Zebra Puzzle</a>. tag:metafilter.com,2014:site.145026Wed, 03 Dec 2014 11:31:43 -0800IridicStudents applauded and were visibly moved in the game's final moments
http://www.metafilter.com/144836/Students%2Dapplauded%2Dand%2Dwere%2Dvisibly%2Dmoved%2Din%2Dthe%2Dgames%2Dfinal%2Dmoments
<blockquote>The best learning games are always fun. Try playing them yourself and see if <em>you</em> enjoy them. No matter how advanced your understanding of the subject matter, a good game should still be fun. I've understood algebra and number partitions for decades, but <em>DragonBox</em> and <em>Wuzzit Trouble</em> are still challenging puzzlers that I like to fiddle with on long airline flights. All good games offer challenges in intuitive ways. In fact, this is the reason games work so well for learning: Players are intrinsically motivated to identify and succeed at understanding the game's mechanics.</blockquote>
<a href="http://blogs.kqed.org/mindshift/2014/11/the-mindshift-guide-to-digital-games-and-learning/">The MindShift Guide to Digital Games and Learning</a> provides a basic introduction to the use of video games in education, gives several thought-provoking examples, and points to numerous sites with related goals, including <a href="http://www.edutopia.org/game-based-learning-resources">Edutopia's articles on game-based learning</a> and <a href="https://www.graphite.org/reviews">Graphite's reviews of digital games with educational content</a>. Meanwhile, this being what The Guardian has just called "<a href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/nov/25/board-games-internet-playstation-xbox">Board games' golden age</a>," resources such as <a href="http://playplaylearn.com/search/games">Play Play Learn</a>, BoardGameGeek's <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/forum/35/boardgamegeek/games-classroom">Games in the Classroom</a>, and The Dice Tower's recent countdown of "<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TuizqFFnQqY">Top Ten Games for the Classroom</a>" offer interesting options for the tabletop as well. The Dice Tower's top ten lists counted down as follows with some disagreements among the participants about the merits of the choices:
<ul>
<li>Tom Vasel: <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/18/roborally">Roborally</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/27708/1960-making-president">1960: The Making of the President</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/6610/spinergy">Spinergy</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/35497/fauna">Fauna</a>, the <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/geeksearch.php?action=search&objecttype=boardgame&q=10+days+in&B1=Go">10 Days in ...</a> series, the <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/geeksearch.php?action=search&advsearch=1&objecttype=boardgame&q=Timeline&include%5Bdesignerid%5D=&geekitemname=&include%5Bpublisherid%5D=157&geekitemname=Asmodee&range%5Byearpublished%5D%5Bmin%5D=&range%5Byearpublished%5D%5Bmax%5D=&range%5Bminage%5D%5Bmax%5D=&floatrange%5Bavgrating%5D%5Bmin%5D=&floatrange%5Bavgrating%5D%5Bmax%5D=&range%5Bnumvoters%5D%5Bmin%5D=&floatrange%5Bavgweight%5D%5Bmin%5D=&floatrange%5Bavgweight%5D%5Bmax%5D=&range%5Bnumweights%5D%5Bmin%5D=&searchuser=pound&range%5Bminplayers%5D%5Bmax%5D=&range%5Bmaxplayers%5D%5Bmin%5D=&playerrangetype=normal&range%5Bplayingtime%5D%5Bmax%5D=&B1=Submit">Timeline: ...</a> series, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/91620/pastiche">Pastiche</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/119506/freedom-underground-railroad">Freedom: The Underground Railroad</a> (and <a href="http://academygames.com/games">Academy Games</a> in general), <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/51/ricochet-robots">Ricochet Robots</a> (alternatively, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/109969/mutant-meeples">Mutant Meeples</a>), and <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/483/diplomacy">Diplomacy</a>.
<li>Sam Healey: <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/6411/blokus-3d">Blokus 3D</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/19427/gemblo">Gemblo</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/2842/transamerica">TransAmerica</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/5725/journeys-paul">Journeys of Paul</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/12333/twilight-struggle">Twilight Struggle</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/37358/founding-fathers">Founding Fathers</a>, the <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/geeksearch.php?action=search&objecttype=boardgame&q=10+days+in&B1=Go">10 Days in ...</a> series, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/37141/times-deluxe">Time's Up!</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/88827/battle-cry-150th-civil-war-anniversary-edition">Battle Cry</a>, and <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/10630/memoir-44">Memoir '44</a>.
<li>Zee Garcia: <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/127095/origin">Origin</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/14038/anachronism">Anachronism</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/30869/thebes">Thebes</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/68227/fabula">Fabula</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/40990/word-street">Word on the Street</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/147151/concept">Concept</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/8671/terra">Terra</a>, <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/119506/freedom-underground-railroad">Freedom: The Underground Railroad</a> (and <a href="http://academygames.com/games">Academy Games</a> in general), the <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/geeksearch.php?action=search&advsearch=1&objecttype=boardgame&q=Timeline&include%5Bdesignerid%5D=&geekitemname=&include%5Bpublisherid%5D=157&geekitemname=Asmodee&range%5Byearpublished%5D%5Bmin%5D=&range%5Byearpublished%5D%5Bmax%5D=&range%5Bminage%5D%5Bmax%5D=&floatrange%5Bavgrating%5D%5Bmin%5D=&floatrange%5Bavgrating%5D%5Bmax%5D=&range%5Bnumvoters%5D%5Bmin%5D=&floatrange%5Bavgweight%5D%5Bmin%5D=&floatrange%5Bavgweight%5D%5Bmax%5D=&range%5Bnumweights%5D%5Bmin%5D=&searchuser=pound&range%5Bminplayers%5D%5Bmax%5D=&range%5Bmaxplayers%5D%5Bmin%5D=&playerrangetype=normal&range%5Bplayingtime%5D%5Bmax%5D=&B1=Submit">Timeline: ...</a> series, and <a href="http://boardgamegeek.com/boardgame/35497/fauna">Fauna</a>.
</li></li></li></ul>
The Dice Tower has also done a recent episode on games that teach logic, the <a href="http://www.dicetower.com/top_ten_lists/current-top-ten-list-logic-games.html">top tens from which are listed on their site</a>. tag:metafilter.com,2014:site.144836Tue, 25 Nov 2014 23:28:55 -0800Monsieur CautionNOT related to Monty Python's Argument Clinic
http://www.metafilter.com/138636/NOT%2Drelated%2Dto%2DMonty%2DPythons%2DArgument%2DClinic
<a href="http://argumentchampion.com/">Argument Champion</a> , a game that uses logical connections between words to pwn your opponent. tag:metafilter.com,2014:site.138636Sat, 26 Apr 2014 10:23:01 -0800oneswellfoopA SAT Attack on the Erdos Discrepancy Conjecture
http://www.metafilter.com/138247/A%2DSAT%2DAttack%2Don%2Dthe%2DErdos%2DDiscrepancy%2DConjecture
<a href="http://io9.com/computers-are-providing-solutions-to-math-problems-that-1525261141">Computers are providing solutions to math problems that we can't check</a> - "A computer has solved the longstanding <a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/1402.2184">Erdős discrepancy</a> problem! Trouble is, we have no idea what it's talking about — because the solution, which is <a href="http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25068-wikipediasize-maths-proof-too-big-for-humans-to-check.html">as long as all of Wikipedia</a>'s pages combined, is far too <a href="http://mathbabe.org/2013/07/30/the-stacks-project-gets-ever-awesomer-with-new-viz/">voluminous</a> for us <a href="http://oliviacaramello.com/Unification/Unification.htm">puny humans</a> to confirm." (<a href="http://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2014/04/are-computer-coming-up-with-answers-we-cannot-understand.html">via</a>; <a href="http://www.metafilter.com/126041/Computerized-Math-Formal-Proofs-andamp-Alternative-Logic">previously</a> ;) tag:metafilter.com,2014:site.138247Sat, 12 Apr 2014 08:55:27 -0800kliulessThen the game gets interesting again as you will be back to trains.
http://www.metafilter.com/137582/Then%2Dthe%2Dgame%2Dgets%2Dinteresting%2Dagain%2Das%2Dyou%2Dwill%2Dbe%2Dback%2Dto%2Dtrains
<a href="http://starttocrate.tumblr.com/">Crates in video games.</a> (<a href="http://www.oldmanmurray.com/features/39.html">previously</a>) <a href="http://trainsingames.com/">Trains in video games.</a> <a href="http://videogamebirds.tumblr.com/">Birds in video games.</a> <a href="http://videogameartarchive.tumblr.com/">Wall art in video games.</a> <a href="http://orphanedking.tumblr.com/">Luchadores in video games.</a> <a href="http://video-game-foliage.tumblr.com/">Foliage in video games.</a> (<a href="http://www.metafilter.com/134927/Video-Game-Foliage">previously</a>) <a href="http://fotozup.com/logic-in-video-games/">Logic in video games.</a> <a href="http://videogame-easter-eggs.tumblr.com/">Easter eggs (secret content) in video games.</a> <a href="http://gamesandfood.tumblr.com/">Normal eggs (and other food) in video games.</a> <a href="http://imgur.com/a/Bg36q/layout/blog">Toilets in video games.</a> <a href="http://repair-her-armor.tumblr.com/">Improved women's armor in video games (slightly NSFW).</a> (<a href="http://www.metafilter.com/128142/Best-worn-with-tiny-loincloth-and-underboobstraps">previously</a>) <a href="http://beargames.tumblr.com/">Bears in video games.</a> <a href="http://disney.wikia.com/wiki/Mickey_Mouse/Gallery/Video_Games">Mickey Mouse in video games.</a> <a href="http://middleburycampus.com/article/one-life-left-love-in-video-games/">Love in video games.</a> tag:metafilter.com,2014:site.137582Tue, 18 Mar 2014 15:55:30 -0800EvilsporkThe Hardest Computer Game of All Time
http://www.metafilter.com/136013/The%2DHardest%2DComputer%2DGame%2Dof%2DAll%2DTime
Many programmers' careers were launched by <a href="http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/bitwise/2014/01/robot_odyssey_the_hardest_computer_game_of_all_time.html">playing an innovative computer game called Robot Odyssey.</a> This game has been <a href="http://www.metafilter.com/70316/Duckdragons-dancing-raccoons-and-robots">mentioned</a> <a href="http://www.metafilter.com/86321/bop-the-alligator">previously</a> on the Blue as well. tag:metafilter.com,2014:site.136013Sat, 25 Jan 2014 14:48:30 -0800reenumMaster of Philosophy, Lord of Debate, Sultan of Reason
http://www.metafilter.com/135345/Master%2Dof%2DPhilosophy%2DLord%2Dof%2DDebate%2DSultan%2Dof%2DReason
<a href="http://existentialcomics.com/comic/9">The Adventures of Fallacy Man</a>, from Existential Comics. tag:metafilter.com,2014:site.135345Sat, 04 Jan 2014 16:30:35 -0800ArtwYou want room 12A, just along the corridor.
http://www.metafilter.com/131709/You%2Dwant%2Droom%2D12A%2Djust%2Dalong%2Dthe%2Dcorridor
<a href="https://bookofbadarguments.com/?view=allpages"><i>An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments</i></a>
<blockquote>
This book is aimed at newcomers to the field of logical reasoning, particularly those who, to borrow a phrase from Pascal, are so made that they understand best through visuals.
</blockquote> tag:metafilter.com,2013:site.131709Fri, 06 Sep 2013 17:59:24 -0800jenkinsEarCan Logic Be Rationally Revised?
http://www.metafilter.com/131297/Can%2DLogic%2DBe%2DRationally%2DRevised
<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJVk08OIrLY">Here is a video</a> of the philosopher <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graham_Priest">Graham Priest</a> giving a talk at the 2012 Conference on Paradox and Logical Revision. He addresses three questions. Can logic be revised? If so, can it be revised rationally? If so, how? In the talk, Priest makes a couple of unimportant errors that audience members point out immediately. The first error is a mistake about the mood of the syllogistic form called Darapti. Wikipedia has a nice discussion of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%A3%CF%85%CE%BB%CE%BB%CE%BF%CE%B3%CE%B9%CF%83%CE%BC%CF%8C%CF%82#Types_of_syllogism">types of syllogism</a>. For lots more on syllogistic and its history, see (of course) the SEP article on <a href="http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/medieval-syllogism/">Medieval Theories of the Syllogism</a>.
The second error was a goof about the Wason selection task. <a href="http://philosophyexperiments.com/wason/Default.aspx">Here</a> is a nice interactive example of how the task works, followed by some discussion.
<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timothy_Williamson">Timothy Williamson</a> is the "Tim" that Priest refers to several times in the talk -- mostly in order to disagree with him. tag:metafilter.com,2013:site.131297Sun, 25 Aug 2013 09:55:44 -0800Jonathan Livengood