The blood substitute PolyHeme has been previously discussed on MetaFilter, but new evidence shows that PolyHeme actually raises the chances of death by nearly 30%. PolyHeme was notable mostly for the reaction to its clinical trials, which, controversially, did not require patient consent.
Loyola University has received approval to investigate PolyHeme®'s use as a blood substitute for critically injured and bleeding trauma patients at accident scenes. Blood has a very short shelf life, requires refrigeration, and matching types takes too much time too carry blood in ambulances. The blood substitute has a long shelf life and is compatible with all blood types. It's designed to furnish oxygen which will "prevent organ damage in the brain, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys," until a transfusion can be done at the hospital. - pretty damn cool. I hope it works. [cross-posted on my site]