"Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, both in the United States and worldwide. Since coffee contains caffeine, a stimulant, coffee drinking is not generally considered to be part of a healthy lifestyle. However, coffee is a rich source of antioxidants and other bioactive compounds, and studies have shown inverse associations between coffee consumption and serum biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance.
Considerable attention has been focused on the possibility that coffee may increase the risk of heart disease, particularly since drinking coffee has been associated with increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and short-term increases in blood pressure. Results from a number of studies have been inconsistent. The heterogeneous findings may be due to differences between case–control and prospective study designs and possibly also to inconsistent control for important confounders such as tobacco smoking. In addition, the numbers of deaths have been small in most studies. Cohort studies do not support a positive association between coffee drinking and mortality, however, and some even suggest a modest inverse association.
Previous studies have also investigated the association between coffee consumption and other major causes of death, and they have shown inverse associations with diabetes, inflammatory diseases, stroke, and injuries and accidents, although associations with cancer have generally been null. The results of studies of coffee consumption and total mortality have been mixed, with associations that have been consistent with either the null hypothesis or a modest inverse effect. Data are lacking to clarify the association between coffee drinking and mortality, to determine whether there is a dose–response relationship, and to assess whether associations are consistent across various subgroups."
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