It includes six items that rate the child's attentiveness, task persistence, eagerness to learn, learning independence, flexibility and organization.
""My argument is that this has always been true about boys and girls. Girls didn't all of a sudden become more engaged and boys didn't suddenly become more rambunctious," Cornwell said. "Their attitudes toward learning were always this way. But it didn't show up in educational attainment like it does today because of all the factors that previously discouraged women's participation in the labor force, such as a lack of access to reliable birth control."
What remains unclear, however, is how to combat this discrepancy
Our findings show that the predominance of girls at the top of the GPA distribution is rooted in their higher educational expectations, themselves linked to career plans that include a graduate degree (such a law or medical degree). More precisely, in the 2000s, “Plans for the Future” is the most important set of explanatory factors accounting for the girls’ higher share of A’s at the three grade levels (12th, 10th, and 8th graders).This set of factors is important enough to account for all of the increase of 2.3%, from the 1980s to 2000s, in the gender difference in the percentage of students earnings A’s. A more minor, but still interesting finding is that high achieving girls are “swimming upstream,” since they are more likely from a disadvantaged family environment.
By comparison with girls, more boys think that they are likely to enter military service or to attend a vocational school. Because the career plans of boys include more predominantly male occupations (craftsmen, protective service and military service occupations, engineers and architects) that do not require advanced degrees, their lower share of high grades is consistent with the “threshold” model that we propose. In an era where much emphasis for improving students’ achievement is placed on schools and teachers, this paper offers a long term view, which highlights the role of students’ motivation and gender differences therein. Clearly, among 8th and 10th graders, the second dominant factor accounting for the lower grades of boys is a measure of the frequency of having been set to the office or to detention over the previous year. This suggests that motivation and misbehavior may go hand-in-hand. We note that there are ongoing field experiments such as SDRC’s “Future to Discover”, whose preliminary results indeed seem to suggest that boys’ plans for the future are more moveable than girls.
In this study, I present new empirical evidence on whether assignment to a same-gender teacher influences student achievement, teacher perceptions of student performance, and student engagement.
My results indicate that learning from a teacher of the opposite gender has a detrimental effect on students’ academic progress and their engagement in school. My best estimate is that it lowers test scores for both boys and girls by approximately 4 percent of a standard deviation and has even larger effects on various measures of student engagement.
Adverse gender effects have an impact on both boys and girls, but that effect falls more heavily on the male half of the population in middle school, simply because most middle-school teachers are female. My estimates suggest that, if half of the English teachers in 6th, 7th, and 8th grades were male and their effects on learning were additive, the achievement gap in reading would fall by approximately a third by the end of middle school. Similarly, these results suggest that part of boys’ relative propensity to be seen as disruptive in these grades is due to the gender interactions resulting from the preponderance of female teachers.
for them to care about traditionally "feminine" things like emotions and nurturing and sitting still and being "good" and pleasing authority figures
Statistics are often used to draw comparisons and to highlight the plight of boys. For example, we know that boys have higher suspension and expulsion rates, as well as higher dropout rates. We also know that boys’ literacy scores on standardized tests are lower than those of girls. ... However, statistics and perspectives such as these do not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detract from deepening our understanding of which boys and which girls are actually at risk. (Italics in original.) In a report entitled: The Truth About Boys and Girls, for example, Sarah Mead states that: “the current boy crisis hype and debate around it are based more on hopes and fears than evidence. The debate benefits neither boys nor girls, while distracting attention from more serious educational problems – such as large racial and economic gaps – and practical ways to help both boys and girls succeed in schools.”
Mead further claims that “the so-called boy crisis” also feeds on “a lack of solid research evidence” or rather on a research base that is “internally contradictory, making it easy to find superficial support for a wide variety of explanations but difficult for the media and the public to evaluate the quality of evidence cited.” This problem relates directly to the tendency to justify certain explanations about boys’ and girls’ different learning styles in light of selectively chosen literature about brain-sex differences.
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