"When exposed to Chief Wahoo, Chief Illinwek, Pocahontas, or other common American Indian images, American Indian students generated positive associations (Study 1, high school) but reported depressed state self-esteem (Study 2, high school), and community worth (Study 3, high school), and fewer achievement-related possible selves (Study 4, college)."
Fryberg, S. A.; Markus, H. R., Oyserman, D., & Stone, J. M. (2008). "Of Warrior Chiefs and Indian Princesses: The Psychological Consequences of American Indian Mascots". Basic and Applied Social Psychology 30 (3): 208–218.
"The purpose of this investigation was to examine if exposure to an American Indian mascot activated American Indian stereotypes in a predominately European American sample. In addition, we explored the role of personal motivation, prejudice level, and experience on stereotype activation. We found that the Chief Wahoo image (i.e., Cleveland Indian's logo) compared to other images activated negative, but not positive, American Indian stereotypes. Participants' motivation to control prejudice, prejudice level, and experience did not predict negative stereotype activation."
Freng, S.; Willis-Esqueda, C. (2011). "A question of honor: Chief Wahoo and American Indian stereotype activation among a university based sample.". Journal of Social Psychology 151 (5): 577–591.
"Two studies examined the effect of exposure to an American Indian sports mascot on the stereotype endorsement of a different minority group. Study 1 used an unobtrusive prime, while Study 2 used a more engaged prime. Study 2 also investigated the effect among those unfamiliar with the controversy regarding American Indian sports mascots. Results from both studies show that participants primed with an American Indian sports mascot increased their stereotyping of a different ethnic minority group."
Kim-Prieto, Chu; Goldstein, Lizabeth A.; Okazaki, Sumie; Kirschner, Blake (March 2010). "Effect of Exposure to an American Indian Mascot on the Tendency to Stereotype a Different Minority Group". Journal of Applied Social Psychology 40 (3): 534–553.
Although pro-mascot advocates suggest that American Indian mascots are complimentary and honorific and should enhance well-being, the research presented here runs contrary to this position. American Indian mascots do not have negative consequences because their content or meaning is inherently negative. Rather, American Indian mascots have negative consequences because, in the contexts in which they appear, there are relatively few alternate characterizations of American Indians. The current American Indian mascot representations function as inordinately powerful communicators, to natives and nonnatives alike, of how American Indians should look and behave. American Indian mascots thus remind American Indians of the limited ways in which others see them. Moreover, because identity construction is not solely an individual process (i.e., you cannot be a self by yourself), the views of American Indians held by others can also limit the ways in which American Indians see themselves.
The research presented here also underscores the role of social representations in the identity construction and maintenance process. Representations of one’s social group can be incorporated or resisted, but it is difficult, if not impossible, to think about one’s self without contending with these social representations (Oyserman & Markus, 1993). The only way to reduce the negative impact of these constraining American Indian mascot representations is to either eliminate them or to create, distribute, and institutionalize a broader array of social representations of American Indians. The latter option would communicate to both natives and nonnatives that, beyond the historically constituted roles as Indian princesses and warrior chiefs, there exist other viable and desirable ways to be American Indian in contemporary mainstream society.
'Washington Redskins, that's not nice! That's a racial slur! That's kind of like having the New York Niggers, okay?'
In 2004, the National Annenberg Election Survey asked...
In a letter from two members of Congress—Sen. Maria Cantwell (D-Washington) and Rep. Tom Cole (R-Oklahoma)—that's expected to be sent today to NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell, they urge him to support changing the team's name, saying that they might reconsider the league's tax-exempt status if they don't, the New York Times reports.
"For you to pretend to that the name is defensible on decade-old public opinion polling flies in the face of our constitutionally protected government-to-government relationship with tribes," writes Cantwell and Cole. Currently, Cantwell sits as chairwoman of the Indian Affairs Committee while Cole is a member of the Native American Caucus. The letter specifically cites a pre-Super Bowl press conference where Goodell defended the team's name as honoring Native Americans.
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