In 1889, Mr W. Cross's Johnson Pneumatic Tube Company (of 135 and 137 Broadway, New York, USA) constructed an experimental 1,200 foot long, 30 inch diameter tube . The system made use of rolling sphere carriers (capsules). The capsules were described as large cannonballs, 29 inches in diameter, made of iron, and weighing 750 pounds. The system was designed to convey goods (mail and 'valuable goods') over long distances, up to 150 miles. Capsules would travel at an average speed of 200 miles per hour. A capsule on the experimental system was reported to travel from one end of the 1,200 foot line, and back again in eleven seconds.
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